Skip to main content

Can Child Support Modifications be Retroactive by Agreement? Calabria v. Calabria

With the release of the updated 2017 Child Support Guidelines, everyone is talking about how the new guidelines will change current child support orders. Right at the cusp of the child support alteration was a case in the middle of the child support debate around court v. self-modification of child support orders: Calabria v. Calabria, 91 Mass. App. Ct. 763 - Mass: Appeals Court 2017. 

In Calabria, the stipulations in the initial separation agreement of the couple in question were as follows:
“The parties agree that upon any change in his or her employment of income he or she shall immediately notify mother/father of the change, the child support will be reviewed.
This Wife is currently unemployed. The Husband’s income has been cut in half. Both parties are obligated to notify the other upon any change of employment or salary status. Parties agree to immediately seek to modify the child support obligation and said modification to be retroactive to the change of employment or salary date. Parties shall also exchange by March 15th of each year, any and all W-2's; 1099's or other documents evidencing income earned or received." 
The wife filed a complaint for modification upon learning of a past increase in the father’s income. The judge ordered, in accordance with the Child Support Guidelines from 2013, that the father pay a deficit of $9,924 for the period he did not pay fully based on this increased income. 

Upon receipt of this judgement for modification, the father refuted that the judge did not have the ability to increase his child support payments for time before the file for modification. He reasoned that as G. L. c. 119A, § 13(a) states:
"Any payment or installment of support under any child support order issued by any court of this commonwealth. . . shall be on or after the date it is due, a judgment by operation of law,  provided that said judgment shall not be subject to retroactive modification except with respect to any period during which there is pending a complaint for modification.” 
However, the Appeals court decided that the divorce agreement language for self-modification took precedence over the statutory limitation.  This should be read as a companion case for Rosen v. Rosen, which highlighted the importance of entering agreements for changes to be enforceable retroactively.  

This is another example a situation in which parties can add clarity to their Agreements which can better define their rights, and in some cases expand on the rights provided by statute.  For more examples of agreements that parties can make that a Judge couldn't do, read our prior posts:

Things a Judge Can't Do, but You Can! - Part 1: Dispute Resolution Provisions

Things a Judge Can't Do, but You Can! - Part 2: Self-Executing Adjustments

Things a Judge Can't Do, but You Can! - Part 3: Survived Agreements

Things a Judge Can't Do, but You Can! - Part 4: Parent Coordinators

 Written by Justin Kelsey & Patricia Cordischi

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

What is the purpose of the Divorce Nisi waiting period?

In Massachusetts the statutory waiting period after a Judgment of Divorce and before the divorce becomes final (or absolute) is called the Nisi period. After a divorce case settles or goes to trial, a Judgment of Divorce Nisi will issue and it will become Absolute after a further ninety (90) days. This waiting period serves the purpose of allowing parties to change their mind before the divorce becomes final. If the Judgment of Divorce Nisi has issued but not become final yet, and you and your spouse decide you don't want to get divorced, then you can file a Motion to Dismiss and the Judgment will be undone. Although many of my clients who are getting divorced think the idea of getting back together with their ex sounds crazy, I have had cases where this happened. In addition to offering a grace period to change your mind, the Nisi period has three other legal effects: 1. The most obvious effect of the waiting period is that you cannot remarry during the Nisi period, be

Does a Criminal Record affect Child Custody?

If one of the parents in a custody case has a criminal record, the types of crimes on their record could have an effect on their chances of obtaining custody. In custody cases the issue is always going to come down to whether or not the best interests of the child might be affected. In the most extreme case, in which one parent has been convicted of first degree murder of the other parent, the law specifically prohibits visitation with the children until they are of a suitable age to assent. Similarly, but to a less serious degree, in making custody and visitation determinations the court will consider crimes that would cause one to question the fitness of a parent. These types of crimes would obviously include any violent crime convictions which could call into question whether the children would be in danger around a parent who has shown themselves to resort to violence when faced with conflict. In addition, drug and alcohol abuse offenses would call into question a parent&#

The Questions that Lawyers and Mediators aren't asking but should: Let's talk about Pronouns

I recently had the opportunity to train with two of the most prominent mediators in Massachusetts: John Fiske and Diane Neumann . Each time they run a training, John and Diane share what they think is the most important question for a client to answer to have an effective mediation. John says that he thought the most important question is "What do I want?" But then he will tell you, with a knowing smile, that Diane disagreed with him and she would say that the most important question for a client to answer is "Who am I?" I agree with Diane. The best lawyers and mediators ask their clients not just about what they want, but also deep questions about the clients' identity, goals, and values in order to help the clients resolve conflict in the most effective way possible. Despite knowing this, we often fail to ask clients the simplest questions when we first meet them or have them fill out an intake. We fail to give them an opportunity to answer the question “W